Hello Everyone! How are you all? I hope all are good and safe at home. I am also fine. So, today we will learn about Acids, Base, how salt are formed? Neutralization and Neutral.
The substances which taste sour, they contain acids. E.g.- curd, lemon, orange, vinegar, etc. the chemical nature of these substances is acidic. So, guess some more examples of acid.The substances which taste bitter, they contain bases. Examples of bases are sodium hydroxide, calcium carbonate and potassium oxide. A base is a substance that can neutralize the acid by reacting with hydrogen ions. The chemical nature of bases is basic. The chemical substances were used to test acidic or basic. This special type of substances is called indicators. Is some examples of indicators are litmus paper, turmeric, China roses petals, phenolphthaleinetc. Litmus paper is a most popular indicator. when a substance contains acid then the litmus paper will become red color and in base it becomes blue color paper. The solution which isn’t change the color of the litmus paper into red or blue are called Neutral. The reaction between an acid and bases is known as neutralization. Salt and water are formed in this process. It produces heat. The reaction of neutralist ion is as follow: – Acid+ Base → Salt and Water (It said like this- When Acid react with Base it become Salt and Water.) The reaction of neutralization equation is as follow: -HCI + NaOH → NaCI+H2O. So, let’s talk about the properties of Acid, Base and Neutral
- Properties of Acids
- Acids are corrosive in nature.
- They are good conductors of electricity.
- Their pH values are always less than 7.
- When reacted with metals, these substances produce hydrogen gas.
- Acids are sour-tasting substances.
- Examples: Sulfuric acid [H2SO4], Hydrochloric acid [HCl], Acetic acid [CH3COOH].
- Properties of Bases
- They are found to have a soapy texture when touched.
- These substances release hydroxide ions (OH– ions) when dissolved in water.
- In their aqueous solutions, bases act as good conductors of electricity.
- The pH values corresponding to bases are always greater than 7.
- Bases are bitter-tasting substances which have the ability to turn red litmus paper blue.
- Examples: Sodium hydroxide [NaOH], milk of magnesia [Mg(OH)2], calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2].
- Neutral Substances
- These substances do not display any acidic or basic characteristics.
- Neutral substances have no effect on red or blue litmus paper.
- Examples: Water, Common salt (NaCl)
Do you know what is Acid Rain? In rain when carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are called acid rain. What we will do when there were excess of acid/ base? When in anywhere there were excess of acid or base, we have to put base in cases of acid and acid in cases of base.