Hello Everyone! Today our Topic is Agriculture. Did you know what is Agriculture ? So, Let’s know about it.

  • Agriculture
    • What is Agriculture?
      • The transformation from a plant to a finished product involves three types of economic activities-primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary activities include the extraction and production of natural resources. Examples- Agriculture, fishing and gathering. Secondary activities- the processing of these resources. Examples- Manufacturing of steel, baking of bread and weaving of cloth. Tertiary activities-provide support to the primary and secondary sectors through services. Examples- Transport, trade, banking, insurance and advertising.
    • Types of Agriculture
      • Agriculture is divided into three main types:
        • Arable farming is a farming system of growing crops in fields. Paddy, wheat, barley are the main crops grown by the Arable farming system.
        • Pastoral farming is a farming system for producing livestock and raising animals. Beef, cattle’s, sheep’s, hens and other animals are examples of Pastoral farming animals.
        • Mixed farming is the farming system which is the combination of both arable farming and pastoral farming
  • Farm System
    • What is Farm System?
      • Agriculture or farming can be looked at as a system. Important inputs-seeds, fertilizers, machinery and labor. Operations involved-ploughing, sowing, irrigation, weeding and harvesting. The outputs from the system-crops, wool, dairy and poultry products.
    • Types of Farming
      • Subsistence farming and Commercial farming– main types of farming depending upon the geographical conditions, demand of produce, labor and level of technology.
      • Subsistence farming- classified as intensive subsistence and primitive subsistence farming.
      • Commercial grain farming, mixed farming and plantation agriculture-
    • Subsistence farming  
      • Intensive subsistence agriculture- The farmer cultivates a small plot of land using simple tools and more labor. Climate with a large number of days with sunshine and fertile soils permit growing of more than one crop annually on the same plot.
      • Primitive subsistence agriculture- Includes shifting cultivation and nomadic herding. Shifting Cultivation– a plot of land is cleared by felling the trees and burning them. The ashes are then mixed with the soil and crops are grown. After the soil loses its fertility, the land is abandoned and the cultivator moves to a new plot. Shifting cultivation is also known as ‘slash and burn’ agriculture. Nomadic Herding-herdsmen move from place to place with their animals for fodder and water, along defined routes. This type of movement arises in response to climatic constraints and terrain.
    • Commercial Farming
      • Commercial grain farming- Crops are grown for commercial purposes. These areas are sparsely populated with large farms spreading over hundreds of hectares. Severe winters restrict the growing season and only a single crop can be grown.
      • Mixed Farming- The land is used for growing food and fodder crops and rearing livestock
      • Plantation Agriculture- A type of commercial farming where a single crop is grown. Large amount of labor and capital are required. The produce may be processed on the farm itself or in nearby factories. The development of a transport network is thus essential for such farming.
  • Major Crops
    • Major food crops
      • Rice- the staple diet of the tropical and sub-tropical regions-needs high temperature, high humidity and rainfall-grows best in alluvial clayey soil, which can retain water-Leading producers of rice are China, followed by India, Japan, Sri Lanka and Egypt-In favorable climatic conditions like West Bengal and Bangladesh 2 to 3 crops are grown in a year.
      • Wheat– requires moderate temperature and rainfall during the growing season- bright sunshine at the time of harvest- thrives best in well-drained loamy soil-grown extensively in USA, Canada, Argentina, Russia, Ukraine, Australia and India- grown in winter in India.
      • Millets– known as coarse grains-can be grown on less fertile and sandy soils-a hardy crop that needs low rainfall and high to moderate temperature and adequate rainfall- Jowar, bajra and ragi are grown in India-also in Nigeria, China and Niger.
      • Maize-requires moderate temperature, rainfall and lots of sunshine-needs well-drained fertile soils- grown in North America, Brazil, China, Russia, Canada, India, and Mexico.
    • Fibre crops
      • Cotton– requires high temperature, light rainfall, 210 frost-free days and bright sunshine to grow-grows best on black and alluvial soils-Leading producers of cotton are China, USA, India, Pakistan, Brazil and Egypt-main raw materials for the cotton textile industry.
      • Jute-known as the ‘Golden Fibre’-grows well on alluvial soil- requires high temperature, heavy rainfall and humid climate- grown in the tropical areas-Leading producers of Jute are India and Bangladesh.
    • Important beverage crops
      • Coffee– requires a warm and wet climate and well-drained loamy soil-Hill slopes are more suitable for the growth of crop-Leading producers are Brazil followed by Columbia and India.
      • Tea– a beverage crop grown on plantations-requires cool climate and well-distributed high rainfall throughout the year for the growth of its tender leaves-needs well-drained loamy soils and gentle slopes-Kenya, India, China, Sri Lanka produce the best quality tea in the world.

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